Financial Accounting 概览

December 20, 2016

为什么我们需要学习 FA?

我在接触会计这门课之前,觉得会计真的是鸡毛学科,用加减运算不就可以了?但是想象一下,你正在经营一个创业公司:

  1. 你从公司 A 收取了2000块,1500块现金支付,500块在2个月以后支付,现在是年底,要作出一份财务报告,请问你如何处理这500块?
  2. 你的投资人向你的公司投资了300万,请问你能不能花这300万里的10块钱买一支牙刷?

以上两个问题是远远不能简单用加减运算的,而想要解决这两个问题,就必然需要财务会计的知识。

财务会计这门学科是商业的基本语言,因为它解决了公司应该如何合理、统一地管理钱这个问题。

知乎的这个回答 —— 人们为什么选会计专业?真的有喜欢会计的人吗? —— 更详细地展示了如何把会计用于解决问题中。

Examination & Module Feedback

课程反馈

在给学生的 feedback 中,对于学生认为课程设置不合理和有不少学生挂科的问题,Andy 一脸无辜地说明了会计学科的特殊性和陡峭的学习曲线,很少去上 lecture 的学生 “must expect not to understand”。挂科的问题难以解决因为挂科学生主要集中在 “the students who do not attend lectures and appear to put in very little effort to master the subject.”

行吧,感觉胸口中了一箭,我就是翘了所有周三的 FA 去旁听 CT 了。

总体得分情况

选择题部分的平均分为 52.5%,远低于其他部分的 67.5%。接近八分之一的学生挂科。

去年一共有540名学生参加 FA 考试,6人拿了90+,52人拿了80-90, top 10% 拿了 80+,top 30% 拿了 70+,69人挂科,占比13%。

作为对比,1516学年大一上学期的 IBM 共有616人参加考试,没有人拿 90+,仅有13人(2%)拿了80+,top 15% 在 70+,仅有9人(1.4%)挂科。去年的 Work and Society 共有486人参加考试,18人(3%)拿了70+,116人(24%)拿了60-69,46人(9%)挂科。

从以上数据可知, FA 相比其他两门同样包含大量概念的科目(WS 和 IBM),更容易拿高分(70+),但也更容易挂。和我预想不同的是,选择题比大题更容易失分,需要注意。

Past Paper

分析前三年的考试试卷,题型基本不变,考试时长2小时,允许携带双行显示计算器和词典。

Section A 是20道选择题,没有答错扣分机制,注意,去年的选择平均得分率仅50%,也就是说错10道才算平均水平。

Section B 就是做报表,50分。

1516年的第一道题,提供 balance sheet 和6条 notes,要求作出一年的 statement of cash flows,20分。第二道题(30分)提供 trial balance 和11条 notes 做出 income statement (14分),balance sheet (10分) 和 statement of changes in equity(6分)。

1314年、1415年基本和1515年一样,就是做那四个表,题目要求都没变,我很怀疑 Edward 就是把公司的名字和数据换了一下(连续三年了,为什么每个公司都要买摩托车?)。

Section C 是简答题,10分,三选一,解释一些基本的概念,难度不大。

课程概览

FA 的概念非常细碎,粗略地分,week 1-6 都在讲如何做出 financial statements,其中前三周是基础,包括 debit,credit,income statement(也叫 statement of profit or loss) 和 trial balance,week 4-6 是细节,包括 accruals,dividends 和 interest;week 7-8 是 statement of cash flows;week 9 是 statements of changes in equity。

以下是我从 Moodle 上找到的更详细地课程概览。

Week 1

Chapter 1 Entities and financial reporting statements

Probably the book will be issued to you during the first week of lectures, so after that, if you have time, after all the other activities this week, you could read chapter 1. I don’t talk about all the ideas in the chapter at this stage, but it is all relevant background material, and will help you to learn and practice the language of accounting

Week 2

Chapter 7 The accounting equation and its components

It is not possible to cover all the concepts in the early textbook chapters in the PPTs and lectures, and so it is useful to read up about these in the textbook. If you have time, you could also preview some of chapters 2 and 3 - these are set reading for later in the course, but provide useful background. NOTE On page 130 the book describes sand and timber as inventory items, but then classifies them as capital - they should be revenue because they are goods for resale. The book is incorrect here.

Week 3

Chapter 8 Basic documentation and books of account

Chapter 9 Double entry and the general ledger

Chapter 10 The balancing of accounts and the trial balance

Chapter 11 Day books and the journal

Week 4

Chapter 15 Depreciation and non-current assets

sections 15.1 and 15.2 are probably best left until later in the course

Chapter 16 Irrecoverable receivables and allowance for irrecoverable receivables

The chapter used to be called “Bad debts and provisions for bad debts” which was a little easier to understand! The book does not use the term doubtful debts, but the idea is included as part of bad debts.

Chapter 17 Accruals and prepayments

You can leave out section 17.4

Week 5

Chapter 12 The cash book

Chapter 21 Errors and suspense accounts

Chapter 14 The final financial statements of sole traders (introductory)

On page 230, the statement of comprehensive income is mentioned briefly. we will return to this idea later. The textbook distinguishes between the accounts of sole traders and those of a company. Many aspects are the same, but in fact the section B questions in the exam are always about companies, not sole traders.

Week 6

Chapter 18 The extended trial balance and final financial statements (advanced)

I will present the extended trial balance in a slightly different way from the book. The textbook does not present the adjustments column in a way that highlights the two sided nature of all adjustments, and you are advised to adopt the format I suggest, where the adjustments columns are totalled and balanced. Pages 570 - 577 (from chapter 29 – week 9) deal with the statement of changes in equity are starting to look at. Some of the contents of this section may only make sense later in the course, when we return to ideas such as comprehensive income and reserves.

Weeks 7 & 8

Chapter 30 Statement of Cash Flows

Week 9

Chapter 28 The nature of limited companies and their capital

This provides a lot of information about the legal background to company structure in the UK

Chapter 29 The final financial statements of limited companies

Items 29.1 - 29.5 are relevant to what we have looked at so far. Some of the items in later sections will be covered in later

Week 10

Chapter 2 International financial reporting: institutional framework and standards

Chapter 3 The conceptual framework 1: objectives of financial statements, stakeholders and other reports

Chapter 4 The conceptual framework 2: concepts, principles and policies

Chapter 5 The conceptual framework 3: the qualitative characteristics of financial statements

These chapters provide useful general background but detailed mastery of the content is not required.

Chapter 24 Inventory valuation This chapter is generally useful, although please note that you do not need to know in detail about work in progress or the accounts of manufacturing companies for this course.

Connect

Andy 在 Moodle 的 Connect 板块里提供了电子版教科书和练习题,如图所示。

What’s Next?

因为所有周三的 FA lecture 我都去旁听 Communication and Technology 了,所以我对 FA 目前是一头雾水,我也不知道复习 FA 要按什么顺序,如果有大神愿意交流,欢迎指导。

我现在决定的复习顺序是围绕考试要求的几个报表配合 Andy 给出的 Question Bank 针对性地看教材和其他资料,我不认同按每周顺序看幻灯片的复习方式,有以下几个原因:

  1. 不带着问题看幻灯片是没有效率的。
  2. 幻灯片的顺序是上课的顺序而不是复习的顺序。
  3. 看幻灯片真的无聊。

接下来几天,如果我还活着的话,我会更加细节地给出我的笔记。

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